Heat Treatment

52765469_lHeat treatment is a controlled process used to to change the microstructure of metals and alloys such as steel and aluminium to impart properties which benefit the working life of a component, for example increased strength, temperature resistance, ductility and surface hardness.

In our workshop in Gothenburg we have the ability to offer heat treatment in our own furnace. We can help you with annealing, soft annealing, tempering, stress relieving, normalizing, drying and regular heating.

We have the capacity of bringing the temperature of an object up to 1300°C. If the object happens to be too large for one of our many ovens, a custom made, temporary oven will be installed to ensure that the object reaches its desired temperature

We have also technicians out in the field working only with mobile heating like pre-heating, post heat treatment and stress relieving. We can quickly and effectively mobilize both technicians and equipment to any site. With highly effective ceramic heaters and “know-how” we can easily set up custom made solutions regardless of the type or size of the object.

 

 

Normalizing

Normalizing is used to provide uniformity in grain size and composition throughout an alloy. It is mainly used on carbon and low-alloyed steels to normalize the structure after forging, hot rolling or casting.

In normalizing, the material is heated to a temperature approximately equivalent to the hardening temperature, at which new austenitic grains are formed. The austenitic grains are much smaller than the previous ferritic grains. After heating and a short soaking time, the components are cooled freely in air. During cooling, new ferritic grains are formed with a further refined grain size. In some cases, both heating and cooling take place under protective gas to avoid oxidation and decarburization. Through normalizing, steel can obtain a more fine-grained homogeneous structure with predictable properties and machinability.

Normalizing differs from annealing in that the metal is heated to a higher temperature and then removed from the furnace for air cooling. The purpose of normalizing is to remove the internal stresses induced by heat treating, welding, casting, forging, forming or machining. Stress, if not controlled, leads to metal failure; therefore, before hardening steel, it must be normalized to ensure the maximum desired results. Low-carbon steels do not usually require normalizing.

Normalized steels are harder and stronger than annealed steels. In the normalized condition, steel is much tougher than in any other structural condition. Parts subjected to impact and those that require maximum toughness with resistance to external stress are usually normalized.

Tempering

Tempering is a process used for improving the characteristics of a metal, especially steel, by heating it to a high temperature, though below the melting point, then cooling it, usually in air. The process has the effect of toughening by lessening brittleness and reducing internal stresses. Suitable temperatures for tempering vary considerably, depending on the type of steel and applications.

Annealing

Annealing is a heat treatment process that changes the physical and chemical properties of the material to increase the ductility; this is to formulate the work piece more workable. Above the transition temperature heating is given to the work piece, this is to maintain a suitable temperature and then cooling.

Annealing treatment is preferable for the welded components, homogeneous, relieve residual stress and increase cold working properties. Based on the condition of the temperature, phase transformation occurred in the shapes by eliminating the physical or chemical non-homogeneous mixture.

Coming to silver, copper, brass and steel the annealing process done by heating the work piece and allow it for cooling to the room temperature. The materials are slowly cooled in the air or quenching in water. The steel must be chilled slowly to strengthen. The material should be soft and used for stamping, forming and shaping.

Hardening

Hardening is a thermal method used to increase the hardness or strength of a steels. The heat treatment process entails heating the steel to hardening temperature (austenitizing) followed by quenching in a suitable quenchant, determined by the hardenability of the steel and the dimensions of the workpiece.